The three things seem inter-related, but I’m not Eastern Religions expert. I think they’re all stones on the same path.
Here’s my analysis of the corresponding I-Ching numerals, called trigrams or bagua (see a trend?) and their meaning, as they relate to the Lost “code” [Via Wikipedia].
4 – Youthful Folly
8 – Holding Together
15 – Modesty
16 – Enthusiasm
23 – Splitting Apart
42 – Increase
Your guess is as good as mine whether or not these symbols represent individuals on the island, the arc of the storyline, or the general reason why things happen the way they do.